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This paper explores agroecology as an alternative approach to agricultural transformation, offering low-input but knowledge intensive agriculture as a more inclusive and sustainable way forwards.
Authors: Anna Mdee, Alex Wostry, Andrew Coulson & Janet Maro
This briefing paper provides recommendations for stakeholders on how toimprove accountability and performance in local governance through a local governance performance index (LGPI) at the district level in Tanzania.
Authors: Rachel Hayman, Anna Mdee and Patricia Tshomba
This working paper details the process of creating a Local Governance Performance Index (LGPI) in Mvomero and Kigoma-Ujiji Districts of Tanzania and of studying its applicability.
Authors: Anna Mdee, Patricia Tshomba & Andrew Mushi
This paper explores the relationship between disability and poverty dynamics in rural Bangladesh drawing from 293 life-history interviews conducted by the author and a small team of researchers in 2007. The aim of the paper is to use existing life-history interviews to provide initial insights into the relationship between poverty and disability in Bangladesh.
Author: Peter Davis
This paper addresses that knowledge gap by applying new analytical techniques to existing data, helping to assess the impact of different types of pro-poor interventions in Fragile and Conflict Affected States (FCAS)
Author: Andrew Shepherd, Vidya Diwakar, Georgina Sturge
This brief draws on lessons from the country-level research in Uganda, Bangladesh and Ethiopia to propose implications of a poverty dynamics approach for policies and programs in order to better support conditions in which poverty escapes can be sustained over time.
Authors: Lucy Scott and Andrew Shepherd
This briefing paper summarises findings around the key questions of what ‘development’ means at the local level, who is responsible for it, and how local government can be held to account in practice. Findings are illustrated with selected quotes from interviews, focus groups and workshops, which demonstrate the challenges that need to be overcome to design and implement a performance index.
This paper explores the links between poverty and disability drawing from 60 qualitative life-history interviews conducted in rural Bangladesh, in 48 households, in three districts, in March 2016. The paper provides insights into the relationship between poverty and disability with the aim of informing policy and practice concerned with both reducing poverty and improving the life chances of people with disabilities.
Author: Peter Davis
The focus of the paper is on persistently poor women with disabilities in Bangladesh. It seeks to contribute to the disability and chronic poverty policy discourse and work towards developing effective poverty reduction measures by investigating daily activities and coping strategies of poor persons with disabilities.
Author: Vidya Diwakar
Efforts to tackle discrimination in access to basic services have shown mixed results in different country settings. This study examines the positive and negative outcomes attributed to anti-discrimination measures adopted in different country contexts and analyses the factors contributing to these outcomes, with a specific focus on anti-discrimination measures in education.
The selection of indicators for the creation of an index is critical if it is to be used as a mechanism to hold local government to account. Clear lines of responsibility and accountability need to be incorporated into the selection of indicators so the index can be applied at the local level.
The purpose of this Working Paper is to explore a menu of policy recommendations to support smallholder agriculture, the rural nonfarm economy and casual wage labour. Developing country governments could use these recommendations to think through their policy-making decisions and ensure the poorest people participate in economic growth on good terms, such that they can sustainably escape poverty.
Author: Andrew Shepherd
The purpose of this Working Paper is to explore a menu of policy recommendations that developing country governments can use to think through their policy-making decisions and ensure the poorest people participate in economic growth on good terms, such that they can sustainably escape poverty.
Authors: Chiara Mariotti and Andrew Shepherd
Pro-poorest economic growth is necessary to improve all poverty dynamics and to eradicate extreme poverty. This Working Paper outlines what pro-poorest growth is and why it is necessary, building on the concept of pro-poor growth popularised in the 2000s.
Author: Chiara Mariotti
This report is a rigorous review of 470 pieces of evidence on the effectiveness of anti-discrimination measures in low and middle-income countries. The review focuses on women and girls, children, young people, disabled people, marginalised ethnic and racial groups and marginalised castes.
This case study tells the story of the Chronic Poverty Research Centre (CPRC), and demonstrates
how its research has made an impact in many interesting, diverse and sometimes surprising places.
The guide highlights the potential trade-offs that policy-makers, programme designers and implementers face in using social protection with the specific objective of preventing impoverishment.
Authors: Lucy Scott and Vidya Diwakar
This report focuses on multidimensional poverty, as measured by household deprivations in health, education, and living standards. Multidimensional measures of poverty are meant to complement monetary measures, and so provide a more holistic understanding of what it means to live in poverty.
Urbanisation and labour force participation can be powerful drivers of women economic empowerment. This paper reviews the empowering and disempowering effects of urbanisation on the the main areas of work performed by women in cities and analyses the interventions which have been implemented to support the different types of female urban livelihoods
A performance index for local governance in Tanzania needs to provide a clear indication of how effectively local government and partners are delivering public services, supporting livelihoods and ensuring peace and security. This paper sets out the context of good governance, local governance, accountability and local service delivery in Tanzania.
Authors: Anna Mdee and Lisa Thorley
One of the most powerful ideas in development in recent years has been good governance. This review of available evidence considers how the performance of local governance can be improved in relation to the better delivery of services, through the use of a local governance performance index. It also considers how the public tracking of locally meaningful measures of governance can be used to improve the accountability of local government bureaucracies and politicians.
Authors: Anna Mdee and Lisa Thorley
Multiple transformations are being sought in our societies in the face of the accelerating risk of climate change and the need to eradicate poverty. This paper sets out to explore current evidence and debate on structural economic transformation and environmental (green) transformation in relation to the eradication of poverty.
Authors: Anna Mdee, Richard Emmott and Alberto Lemma
This policy guide looks at evidence from social protection programmes with innovative designs that combine different interventions, either following a graduation approach or by building integrated social protection systems.
Authors: Chiara Mariotti, Martina Ulrichs and Luke Harman
This report examines why some households in Ethiopia are able to escape poverty and remain out of it—that is, they experience sustained escapes from poverty—while others escape poverty only to return to living in it again – that is, they experience transitory escapes. The report investigates the resources (land, livestock, and value of assets), attributes (household composition and education level), and activities (including jobs, engagement in non-farm activities and migration) of households that enable them to escape poverty sustainably and minimize the likelihood of returning to living in poverty again.
Authors: Chiara Mariotti and Vidya Diwakar
Bangladesh has experienced substantial reductions in both extreme poverty and poverty. The proportion of the population living below the national extreme poverty line has reduced from 50 percent in 1991 to 18 percent in 2010. However, some households escape poverty only to live at a level just above the poverty line. They therefore remain vulnerable to slipping into poverty in the event of a shock or stressor, such as an episode of ill-health or a flood. The specific focus of this report is on “transitory poverty escapes”: a term referring to households that successfully escape from poverty only to return to living in it once again i.e. they become re-impoverished.
Authors: Lucy Scott and Vidya Diwakar
Pro-poorest growth, defined as a relatively greater proportion of income gain from growth by the poorest compared to the average, may be necessary to achieve the first Sustainable Development Goal target of eradicating extreme poverty: this paper argues that it is likely to be, and that some countries have had at least episodes of pro-poorest growth.
Authors: Andrew Shepherd, Chiara Mariotti, and Laura Rodriguez-Takeuchi
The international community has committed to Leaving No One Behind. This means poverty eradication shouldn’t count as such if certain people are systematically excluded from it. Growth is a key means of implementing these commitments. So how can growth occur in a way which includes the poorest on good terms? These were the premises of the Conference ‘Incorporating Pro-Poorest Growth in the SDGs: Moving Beyond the MDGs’ implemented by CPAN and the Asian Development Bank in Manila in April 2016.
Since the early 1990s, Uganda has experienced substantial reductions in poverty. However, as people have moved out of poverty, the number of people living at a level less than twice the poverty line—termed the ‘insecure non-poor’ in the Ugandan context—has risen. This report focuses on ‘transitory poverty escapes’, i.e., on those households which, having successfully escaped from poverty, return to living in it once again. Specifically, it examines why some households are able to escape poverty and remain out of it—that is, they experience sustained escapes from poverty—while others escape poverty only to return to living in it again in the future.
Authors: Lucy Scott, Vidya Diwakar, Moses Okech
This report presents the findings of a rigorous review of evidence on anti-discrimination and affirmative action policies and legislation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It focuses on three areas: political participation, education and labour markets.
Authors: Rachel Marcus, Anna Mdee and Ella Page
The objective of this policy guide is to provide policymakers and programme designers with an up-to-date view of what needs to be done to include the poorest people in financial services, and by doing so make a dent in their poverty. It selects savings and insurance as two aspects of financial services that are most likely to build poor people’s resilience in the face of the multiple risks they face – a necessary precursor to any investments they might make to get out of poverty.