Anti-discrimination measures in education: A comparative policy analysis

Efforts to tackle discrimination in access to basic services have shown mixed results in different country settings. This study examines the positive and negative outcomes attributed to anti-discrimination measures adopted in different country contexts and analyses the factors contributing to these outcomes, with a specific focus on anti-discrimination measures in education.

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Household economic diversification: Policies to support smallholder agriculture, the rural nonfarm economy and casual wage labour

The purpose of this Working Paper is to explore a menu of policy recommendations to support smallholder agriculture, the rural nonfarm economy and casual wage labour. Developing country governments could use these recommendations to think through their policy-making decisions and ensure the poorest people participate in economic growth on good terms, such that they can sustainably escape poverty.

Author: Andrew Shepherd

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Getting the long-term macro development perspective right: Diversification of the economy with strategic investment and increased protection from risks

The purpose of this Working Paper is to explore a menu of policy recommendations that developing country governments can use to think through their policy-making decisions and ensure the poorest people participate in economic growth on good terms, such that they can sustainably escape poverty.

Authors: Chiara Mariotti and Andrew Shepherd

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Do Anti-Discrimination Measures Reduce Poverty Among Marginalised Social Groups?

This report is a rigorous review of 470 pieces of evidence on the effectiveness of anti-discrimination measures in low and middle-income countries. The review focuses on women and girls, children, young people, disabled people, marginalised ethnic and racial groups and marginalised castes.

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How can public policy enhance female employment and empower women economically as countries urbanize?

Urbanisation and labour force participation can be powerful drivers of women economic empowerment. This paper reviews the empowering and disempowering effects of urbanisation on the the main areas of work performed by women in cities and analyses the interventions which have been implemented to support the different types of female urban livelihoods

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Good governance, local government, accountability and service delivery in Tanzania

A performance index for local governance in Tanzania needs to provide a clear indication of how effectively local government and partners are delivering public services, supporting livelihoods and ensuring peace and security.  This paper sets out the context of good governance, local governance, accountability and local service delivery in Tanzania.  

Authors: Anna Mdee and Lisa Thorley

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Improving the delivery of public services What role could a local governance index play?

One of the most powerful ideas in development in recent years has been good governance. This review of available evidence considers how the performance of local governance can be improved in relation to the better delivery of services, through the use of a local governance performance index. It also considers how the public tracking of locally meaningful measures of governance can be used to improve the accountability of local government bureaucracies and politicians.

Authors: Anna Mdee and Lisa Thorley

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Compatible or contradictory? The challenge of inclusive structural economic and environmental transformation

Multiple transformations are being sought in our societies in the face of the accelerating risk of climate change and the need to eradicate poverty. This paper sets out to explore current evidence and debate on structural economic transformation and environmental (green) transformation in relation to the eradication of poverty. 

Authors: Anna Mdee, Richard Emmott and Alberto Lemma

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Ensuring Escapes from Poverty are Sustained in Rural Ethiopia

This report examines why some households in Ethiopia are able to escape poverty and remain out of it—that is, they experience sustained escapes from poverty—while others escape poverty only to return to living in it again – that is, they experience transitory escapes. The report investigates the resources (land, livestock, and value of assets), attributes (household composition and education level), and activities (including jobs, engagement in non-farm activities and migration) of households that enable them to escape poverty sustainably and minimize the likelihood of returning to living in poverty again.
Authors: Chiara Mariotti and Vidya Diwakar
 

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Ensuring Escapes from Poverty are Sustained in rural Bangladesh

Bangladesh has experienced substantial reductions in both extreme poverty and poverty. The proportion of the population living below the national extreme poverty line has reduced from 50 percent in 1991 to 18 percent in 2010. However, some households escape poverty only to live at a level just above the poverty line. They therefore remain vulnerable to slipping into poverty in the event of a shock or stressor, such as an episode of ill-health or a flood. The specific focus of this report is on “transitory poverty escapes”: a term referring to households that successfully escape from poverty only to return to living in it once again i.e. they become re-impoverished.

Authors: Lucy Scott and Vidya Diwakar

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What policy lessons can be learnt from cases of pro-poorest growth?

Pro-poorest growth, defined as a relatively greater proportion of income gain from growth by the poorest compared to the average, may be necessary to achieve the first Sustainable Development Goal target of eradicating extreme poverty: this paper argues that it is likely to be, and that some countries have had at least episodes of pro-poorest growth. 

Authors: Andrew Shepherd, Chiara Mariotti, and Laura Rodriguez-Takeuchi

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Conference Report - CPAN-ADB Conference on Pro-poorest Growth and the SDGs: emerging issues

The international community has committed to Leaving No One Behind. This means poverty eradication shouldn’t count as such if certain people are systematically excluded from it. Growth is a key means of implementing these commitments. So how can growth occur in a way which includes the poorest on good terms? These were the premises of the Conference ‘Incorporating Pro-Poorest Growth in the SDGs: Moving Beyond the MDGs’ implemented by CPAN and the Asian Development Bank in Manila in April 2016. 

 

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Ensuring Escapes from Poverty are Sustained in Uganda

Since the early 1990s, Uganda has experienced substantial reductions in poverty. However, as people have moved out of poverty, the number of people living at a level less than twice the poverty line—termed the ‘insecure non-poor’ in the Ugandan context—has risen. This report focuses on ‘transitory poverty escapes’, i.e., on those households which, having successfully escaped from poverty, return to living in it once again. Specifically, it examines why some households are able to escape poverty and remain out of it—that is, they experience sustained escapes from poverty—while others escape poverty only to return to living in it again in the future. 

Authors: Lucy Scott, Vidya Diwakar, Moses Okech

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Anti-discrimination policies and programmes in low-and middle-income countries: Experiences in political participation, education and labour markets

This report presents the findings of a rigorous review of evidence on anti-discrimination and affirmative action policies and legislation in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).  It focuses on three areas: political participation, education and labour markets. 

Authors: Rachel Marcus, Anna Mdee and Ella Page

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